Method for the fast determination of bromate, nitrate and nitrite by ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and their monitoring in Saudi Arabian drinking water with chemometric data treatment

Khan, Mohammad Rizwan, Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad, Alothman, Zeid Abdullah, Busquets, Rosa and Naushad, Mu (2016) Method for the fast determination of bromate, nitrate and nitrite by ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and their monitoring in Saudi Arabian drinking water with chemometric data treatment. Talanta, 152, pp. 513-520. ISSN (print) 0039-9140

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Abstract

A rapid, sensitive and precise method for the determination of bromate (BrO3(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in drinking water was developed with Ultra performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MS). The elution of BrO3(-), NO3(-) and NO2(-) was attained in less than two minutes in a reverse phase column. Quality parameters of the method were established; run-to-run and day-to-day precisions were <3% when analysing standards at 10µgL(-1). The limit of detection was 0.04µg NO2(-)L(-1) and 0.03µgL(-1) for both NO3(-)and BrO3(-). The developed UPLC-ESI/MS method was used to quantify these anions in metropolitan water from Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Dammam and Riyadh areas) and commercial bottled water (from well or unknown source) after mere filtration steps. The quantified levels of NO3(-) were not found to pose a risk. In contrast, BrO3(-) was found above the maximum contaminant level established by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 25% and 33% of the bottled and metropolitan waters, respectively. NO2(-) was found at higher concentrations than the aforementioned limits in 70% and 92% of the bottled and metropolitan water samples, respectively. Therefore, remediation measures or improvements in the disinfection treatments are required. The concentrations of BrO3(-), NO3(-) and NO2(-) were mapped with Principal Component analysis (PCA), which differentiated metropolitan water from bottled water through the concentrations of BrO3(-) and NO3(-) mainly. Furthermore, it was possible to discriminate between well water; blend of well water and desalinated water; and desalinated water. The point or source (region) was found to not be distinctive.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: bromate, nitrate, nitrite, uplc-ms, Saudi Arabia, drinking water
Research Area: Chemistry
Earth systems and environmental sciences
Faculty, School or Research Centre: Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing
Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing > School of Pharmacy and Chemistry
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Depositing User: Clive Allnutt
Date Deposited: 29 Feb 2016 10:16
Last Modified: 17 Feb 2017 03:30
URI: http://eprints.kingston.ac.uk/id/eprint/34580

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