Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events: a consequence of long term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse

Graham, M.R., Grace, F.M., Boobier, W., Hullin, D., Kicman, A., Cowan, D., Davies, B. and Baker, J.S. (2006) Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events: a consequence of long term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(7), pp. 644-648. ISSN (print) 0306-3674

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Objectives: The long term effects (>20 years) of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use on plasma concentrations of homocysteine (HCY), folate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index, urea, creatinine, haematocrit (HCT), vitamin B12, and urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, were examined in a cohort of self-prescribing bodybuilders. Methods: Subjects (n = 40) were divided into four distinct groups: (1) AAS users still using AAS (SU; n = 10); (2) AAS users abstinent from AAS administration for 3 months (SA; n = 10); (3) non-drug using bodybuilding controls (BC; n = 10); and (4) sedentary male controls (SC; n = 10). Results: HCY levels were significantly higher in SU compared with BC and SC (p<0.01), and with SA (p<0.05). Fat free mass was significantly higher in both groups of AAS users (p<0.01). Daily energy intake (kJ) and daily protein intake (g/day) were significantly higher in SU and SA (p<0.05) compared with BC and SC, but were unlikely to be responsible for the observed HCY increases. HCT concentrations were significantly higher in the SU group (p<0.01). A significant linear inverse relationship was observed in the SU group between SHBG and HCY (r = –0.828, p<0.01), indicating a possible influence of the sex hormones in determining HCY levels. Conclusions: With mounting evidence linking AAS to adverse effects on some clotting factors, the significantly higher levels of HCY and HCT observed in the SU group suggest long term AAS users have increased risk of future thromboembolic events.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: bodybuilding, thromboembolism
Research Area: Allied health professions and studies
Faculty, School or Research Centre: Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences (until 2013)
Depositing User: Katrina Clifford
Date Deposited: 22 May 2008
Last Modified: 16 Jul 2012 21:55
URI: http://eprints.kingston.ac.uk/id/eprint/2909

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