Biomonitoring heterocyclic amines and metabolites in urine by liquid-phase microexraction: 2-amin-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a possible biomarker of exposure to dietary PhIP

Busquets, Rosa, Frandsen, H., Jonsson, J.A., Puignou, L., Galceran, M.T and Skog, K. (2013) Biomonitoring heterocyclic amines and metabolites in urine by liquid-phase microexraction: 2-amin-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a possible biomarker of exposure to dietary PhIP. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 26(2), pp. 233-240. ISSN (print) 0893-228X

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Abstract

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds formed at ng/g levels during frying meat or fish. The effect of the normal intake of dietary HCAs in humans and their involvement in the etiology of cancer are currently unknown. In this work, a new extraction method, liquid phase microextraction (LPME) with hollow fibers, and LC-MS/MS have been used for the first time to determine HCAs and metabolites in nonspiked human urine following a single meal of chicken cooked at 180 °C for 6 min. The total intake of HCAs was estimated to be 6 μg, of which 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) accounted for about 1 μg. The concentrations of PhIP in nonhydrolyzed urine samples ranged from 11.7 to 59.4 pg/g. The total amount of PhIP in urine ranged between 9.3 and 21.1 ng, which corresponds to 0.91-2.1% of the ingested PhIP. In addition, the urine levels of 4'-OH-PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-(4'-hydroxy)phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and 5-OH-PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-(5-hydroxy)phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) also showed a narrow variation between the samples. The analysis of urine samples after acid hydrolysis did not give additional information but showed a notable increase in norharman in some cases. The obtained results suggest PhIP in urine as a possible biomarker of exposure to HCAs and the LPME and LC-MS/MS method as an appropriate strategy to biomonitor HCAs in urine.

Item Type: Article
Research Area: Cancer studies
Chemistry
Faculty, School or Research Centre: Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing
Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing > School of Pharmacy and Chemistry
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Depositing User: Rosa Busquets
Date Deposited: 22 Apr 2014 10:42
Last Modified: 01 May 2014 11:02
URI: http://eprints.kingston.ac.uk/id/eprint/28167

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