An observational study reveals that neonatal vitamin D is primarily determined by maternal contributions: Implications of a new assay on the roles of vitamin D forms

Karras, Spyridon N., Shah, Iltaf, Petroczi, Andrea, Goulis, Demetrios G., Bili, Helen, Papadopoulou, Fotini, Harizopoulou, Vikentia, Tarlatzis, Basil C. and Naughton, Declan P. (2013) An observational study reveals that neonatal vitamin D is primarily determined by maternal contributions: Implications of a new assay on the roles of vitamin D forms. Nutrition Journal, 12(77), pp. 1-8. ISSN (online) 1475-2891

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Abstract

Background Vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy are measured to diagnose states of insufficiency or deficiency. The aim of this study is to apply accurate assays of vitamin D forms [single- hydroxylated [25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3], double-hydroxylated [1alpha,25(OH)2D2, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3], epimers [3-epi-25(OH)D2, 3-epi-25(OH)D3] in mothers (serum) and neonates (umbilical cord) to i) explore maternal and neonatal vitamin D biodynamics and ii) to identify maternal predictors of neonatal vitamin D concentrations. Methods All vitamin D forms were quantified in 60 mother- neonate paired samples by a novel liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. Maternal characteristics [age, ultraviolet B exposure, dietary vitamin D intake, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone] were recorded. Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict neonatal 25(OH)D concentrations. Results Mothers had similar concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 forms compared to neonates (17.9 +/- 13.2 vs. 15.9 +/- 13.6 ng/mL, p = 0.289) with a ratio of 1:3. The epimer concentrations, which contribute approximately 25% to the total vitamin D levels, were similar in mothers and neonates (4.8 +/- 7.8 vs. 4.5 +/- 4.7 ng/mL, p = 0.556). No correlation was observed in mothers between the levels of the circulating form (25OHD3) and its active form. Neonatal 25(OH)D2 was best predicted by maternal characteristics, whereas 25(OH)D3 was strongly associated to maternal vitamin D forms (R2 = 0.253 vs. 0.076 and R2 = 0.109 vs. 0.478, respectively). Maternal characteristics explained 12.2% of the neonatal 25(OH)D, maternal 25(OH)D concentrations explained 32.1%, while epimers contributed an additional 11.9%. Conclusions By applying anovel highly specific vitamin D assay, the present study is the first to quantify 3-epi-25(OH)D concentrations in mother - newborn pairs. This accurate assay highlights a considerable proportion of vitamin D exists as epimers and a lack of correlation between the circulating and active forms. These results highlight the need for accurate measurements to appraise vitamin D status. Maternal characteristics and circulating forms of vitamin D, along with their epimers explain 56% of neonate vitamin D concentrations. The roles of active and epimer forms in the maternal - neonatal vitamin D relationship warrant further investigation.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Supported by grants from Kingston University Research Development funds and Hellenic Society for the Study of Bone Metabolism (EEMMO).
Research Area: Biological sciences
Faculty, School or Research Centre: Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing > School of Life Sciences
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Depositing User: Iltaf Shah
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2013 09:23
Last Modified: 01 Apr 2014 14:13
URI: http://eprints.kingston.ac.uk/id/eprint/25861

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