Automatic BIRAD scoring of breast cancer mammograms

Nasser, Maryam (2019) Automatic BIRAD scoring of breast cancer mammograms. (PhD thesis), Kingston University, .


A computer aided diagnosis system (CAD) is developed to fully characterize and classify mass to benign and malignancy and to predict BIRAD (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data system) scores using mammographic image data. The CAD includes a preprocessing step to de-noise mammograms. This is followed by an active counter segmentation to deforms an initial curve, annotated by a radiologist, to separate and define the boundary of a mass from background. A feature extraction scheme wasthen used to fully characterize a mass by extraction of the most relevant features that have a large impact on the outcome of a patient biopsy. For this thirty-five medical and mathematical features based on intensity, shape and texture associated to the mass were extracted. Several feature selection schemes were then applied to select the most dominant features for use in next step, classification. Finally, a hierarchical classification schemes were applied on those subset of features to firstly classify mass to benign (mass with BIRAD score 2) and malignant mass (mass with BIRAD score over 4), and secondly to sub classify mass with BIRAD score over 4 to three classes (BIRAD with score 4a,4b,4c). Accuracy of segmentation performance were evaluated by calculating the degree of overlapping between the active counter segmentation and the manual segmentation, and the result was 98.5%. Also reproducibility of active counter 3 using different manual initialization of algorithm by three radiologists were assessed and result was 99.5%. Classification performance was evaluated using one hundred sixty masses (80 masses with BRAD score 2 and 80 mass with BIRAD score over4). The best result for classification of data to benign and malignance was found using a combination of sequential forward floating feature (SFFS) selection and a boosted tree hybrid classifier with Ada boost ensemble method, decision tree learner type and 100 learners’ regression tree classifier, achieving 100% sensitivity and specificity in hold out method, 99.4% in cross validation method and 98.62 % average accuracy in cross validation method. For further sub classification of eighty malignance data with BIRAD score of over 4 (30 mass with BIRAD score 4a,30 masses with BIRAD score 4b and 20 masses with BIRAD score 4c), the best result achieved using the boosted tree with ensemble method bag, decision tree learner type with 200 learners Classification, achieving 100% sensitivity and specificity in hold out method, 98.8% accuracy and 98.41% average accuracy for ten times run in cross validation method. Beside those 160 masses (BIRAD score 2 and over 4) 13 masses with BIRAD score 3 were gathered. Which means patient is recommended to be tested in another medical imaging technique and also is recommended to do follow-up in six months. The CAD system was trained with mass with BIRAD score 2 and over 4 also 4 it was further tested using 13 masses with a BIRAD score of 3 and the CAD results are shown to agree with the radiologist’s classification after confirming in six months follow up. The present results demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity of the proposed CAD system compared to prior research. The present research is therefore intended to make contributions to the field by proposing a novel CAD system, consists of series of well-selected image processing algorithms, to firstly classify mass to benign or malignancy, secondly sub classify BIRAD 4 to three groups and finally to interpret BIRAD 3 to BIRAD 2 without a need of follow up study.

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