Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of preterm and early term births : a population-based register study

Younes, Salma, Samara, Muthanna, Al-Jurf, Rana, Nasrallah, Gheyath, Al-Obaidly, Sawsan, Salama, Husam, Olukade, Tawa, Hammuda, Sara, Ismail, Mohamed A., Abdoh, Ghassan, Abdulrouf, Palli Valapila, Farrell, Thomas, AlQubaisi, Mai, Al Rifai, Hilal Al and Al-Dewik, Nader (2021) Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of preterm and early term births : a population-based register study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(11), e5865. ISSN (print) 1660-4601

Abstract

Preterm birth (PTB) and early term birth (ETB) are associated with high risks of perinatal mortality and morbidity. While extreme to very PTBs have been extensively studied, studies on infants born at later stages of pregnancy, particularly late PTBs and ETBs, are lacking. In this study, we aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors, and feto-maternal outcomes of PTB and ETB births in Qatar. We examined 15,865 singleton live births using 12-month retrospective registry data from the PEARL-Peristat Study. PTB and ETB incidence rates were 8.8% and 33.7%, respectively. PTB and ETB in-hospital mortality rates were 16.9% and 0.2%, respectively. Advanced maternal age, pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM), assisted pregnancies, and preterm history independently predicted both PTB and ETB, whereas chromosomal and congenital abnormalities were found to be independent predictors of PTB but not ETB. All groups of PTB and ETB were significantly associated with low birth weight (LBW), large for gestational age (LGA) births, caesarean delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)/or death of neonate in labor room (LR)/operation theatre (OT). On the other hand, all or some groups of PTB were significantly associated with small for gestational age (SGA) births, Apgar 7 at 1 and 5 minutes and in-hospital mortality. The findings of this study may serve as a basis for taking better clinical decisions with accurate assessment of risk factors, complications, and predictions of PTB and ETB.

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