Exercise, appetite and cardiometabolic risk markers in South Asian and European men

Benedetti, Simone (2020) Exercise, appetite and cardiometabolic risk markers in South Asian and European men. (PhD thesis), Kingston University, .


South Asians have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than white Europeans. The mechanisms responsible remain partiallyunderstoodwith physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness possibly playing a role.Thus, this thesis examined ethnic differences in traditional and unconventional CVD and T2D risk markers including appetite-related hormonesandinflammatory markersas well asfree fatty acids based on metabolomics methods, between South Asian and white European men. Furthermore, this thesis exploredassociations with objectively-measured physical activity/cardiorespiratory fitness and examined effects of acute exercise on subjective appetite ratings, appetite-related hormones and ad libitumenergy intake.In study 1(Chapter 3), South Asians exhibited lower fasting acylated ghrelin, high-density lipoprotein and V̇O2maxthan white Europeans but higher body fatpercentage, C-reactive protein, leptin, triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin concentrations. Study 2(Chapter 4), revealed higher laurate, myristate, palmitate, γ-linolenate and linoleateconcentrationsin South Asiansthanwhite Europeans. Free fatty acidswere stronglycorrelated with body fat percentage and total area under the curvefor glucose inSouth Asians and with total step counts in white Europeans. Study 3(Chapter 5)revealed similarappetite perceptions, energy intake and appetite-related hormones between ethnic groups in response to exercisealthough subtle differenceswere identified with South Asians exhibitinglower appetite perceptions 2 h after the buffet meal, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations at 4 hand lower carbohydrate intakeafterthe exercise.Acute exerciseincreased concentrations of delta acylated ghrelin and total peptide YYand induced a transient suppression in appetite perceptions at 4.5 h and stimulation at 6.5 h, without provoking energy compensation in both groups. These data demonstratethat South Asian have an adverse cardiometabolicrisk profilethan white Europeanmenwhich may be linked to theirlowerphysical activityand cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, theseshow that South Asians exhibit different levels of acylated ghrelin and FFAs metabolic profile than white Europeans and provide evidence that acute exercise induces a short-term energy deficit irrespective of ethnicity.

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