Advanced methods for the detection of micro- and nanosystems in food

Busquets, Rosa (2020) Advanced methods for the detection of micro- and nanosystems in food. In: Ramos, Oscar L. , Pereira, Ricardo N. , Cerqueria, Miguel A. , Teixeira, Jose A. and Vicente, Antonio A., (eds.) Advances in processing technologies for bio-based nanosystems in food. Boca Raton, U.S. : CRC Press. pp. 315-334. (Contemporary Food Engineering Series) ISBN 9781138037304


New methods are needed for the analysis of nanosystems in food products and packaging. Micro- and nanocapsules, nanohydrogels, nanoemulsions, lipid nanoparticles, micelles, metallic nanoparticles with a range of compositions and shapes must be determined in a variety of matrices. All these small entities present different interaction with their food environment and can change with time. There is no single technique that can provide all the information required therefore a range of complementary analytical approaches should be used to capture quantitative and qualitative physical and chemical properties to understand the behaviour of the nanosystems in food. This chapter addresses different stages of the analytical process illustrating recent developments made in this field. A cross-section of commonly used analytical tactics to characterise nanofood are explained, including advanced techniques that can offer valuable information, although their use is still limited for some. Sample preparation strategies and how these affect the quality parameters of measurements are discussed with special emphasis on the detection with electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Trends in the application of separation and detection techniques in the characterisation of nanosystems are also explained. There are important gaps of knowledge and grey areas regarding the working range of the different techniques in the characterisation of micro- and nanosystems in food. At present, feasibility studies are being carried out, which may precede a new phase for establishing guidelines and analytical protocols, and increasing automation. Exciting analytical times are foreseen.

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