Portals to prohibited performance enhancing drugs : prevelance, profiling & team dynamics

James, Ricky (2017) Portals to prohibited performance enhancing drugs : prevelance, profiling & team dynamics. (PhD thesis), Kingston University, .


Prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PPD) are nutritional supplements which are prohibited from use during competition and training. UK anti-doping projects ensures that UK professional and recreational athletes do not accidently, or intentionally, use PPD's, thus gaining an unfair advantage over their competitors. A study by Winard, (2015) utilised interviews to idetify problems with current UK anti-doping strategies. Allocation of funds, relevant information, efficacy of programmes and quantifiable measures, were all areas that required attention. This thesis conducted five studies in order to inform anti-doping programs. Study 1 compared two indirect prevalence methods which offer protection beyond anonymity. This study highlighted the skewing effect that strategic responding causes when utilising the 'Unrelated Question Model'. Study 2 utilised the search engine 'Google' to identify key areas where anti-doping education would most be useful. The study showed 'Google' efficacy in finding key areas where anti-doping programmes could be effective. Study 3 looked to profile individuals that were thinking about using (TU) PPD's and compared said profiles to current/past users and non-users. After twelve months, TU were contacted to see if they had initiated PPU use. The number of users in the respondents gym social group, and the belief that they couldn't achieve performance goals without using PPD's were both predictors of future use. Study 4 assessed the order of supplements prior to PPD use in an attempt to map key stages of supplementation. Creatine and prohormones were identified as key supplements in the process towards PPD use. Study 5 looked at positional and social circle influences on PPD use. Positions which involve explosive power were identified as high risk, and social circles within a team, were shown to have varying attitudes towards other social circles within a team.

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