Asymmetric and nonlinear exchange rate pass-through to consumer price in Nigeria : 1986-2013

Musti, Babagana Mala (2017) Asymmetric and nonlinear exchange rate pass-through to consumer price in Nigeria : 1986-2013. (PhD thesis), Kingston University, .


This study examines the effect of exchange rate changes on consumer prices in Nigeria by examining the magnitude and speed of exchange rate pass-through (ERPT) to consumer prices in Nigeria using quarterly time series data from 1986 to 2013. The study also examines the potential nonlinearities and asymmetries in the ERPT in Nigeria during the same period. The study used vector error correction model (VECM) and smooth transition autoregresive (STAR) model. The methodology employed, are free from some weaknesses of the previous empirical studies and contributed to the analysis of ERPT from a macroeconomic perspective. This study focuses on the macroeconomic perspective of the effect of ERPT which is more relevant for monetary policy. To design and implement an efficient monetary policy, theoritical and empirical knowledge of the ERPT to domestic consumer price is necessary. Similarly, the understanding of the level of ERPT to domestic consumer prices would offer more understanding of the international transmission of shocks and the efficiency of exchange rate policy measures on external adjustment. The study results show full and statistically significant ERPT in the long-run in Nigeria during the sample period. However, using linear model (VECM) the short-run estimate shows no significant ERPT in Nigeria. Whereas, the nonlinear STAR model shows significant ERPT even in the short-run in Nigeria. The results of the nonlinear model (STAR) show evidence of nonlinearities and asymmetries in the ERPT in Nigeria. The nonlinearities and asymmetries tend to be prevalent during periods of higher inflation and greater exchange movements when the changes in prices and exchange rates exceed certain thresholds. This study, therefore, confirms Taylor’s (2000) hypothesis that pass-through declines in low and stable inflation environment which create nonlinear ERPT. The result shows asymmetric ERPT to the direction of exchange rate change (appreciation or depreciation). The result also shows clear evidence of nonlinearity with respect to the size of the exchange rate change. This result is in line with the menu cost hypothesis where the importing firms do not transfer the exchange rate changes due to the cost of changing their menu. Therefore, the effect of the exchange rate changes on consumer price is minimal when the exchange rate changes are below the threshold level. The study also examined the output growth as a source of nonlinearities. However, the result does not show evidence of nonlinear ERPT due to the output level. The comparison of statistical test results of linear autoregressive (AR) and the nonlinear (STAR) model indicates that the nonlinear STAR model fits the data better than the linear AR model in all cases. The results of this study, therefore, show a significant impact of exchange rate changes on the domestic consumer price in both short run and long run. The asymmetric and nonlinear ERPT induced by the pricing behaviors of the importing firms also significantly influences the speed and magnitude of the ERPT to consumer prices in Nigeria.

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