Physical activity, and risk factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease in South Asian and European men

Benedetti, Simone, Moir, Hannah, Naughton, Declan, Hill, Natasha, Stensel, David, Thackray, Alice and Allgrove, Judith (2018) Physical activity, and risk factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease in South Asian and European men. In: Diabetes UK Professional Conference 2018; 14 -18 Mar 2018, London, U.K.. (In Press)

Abstract

Aims: To examine risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in South Asian (SA) and white European (WE) men and their relationship with physical activity (PA) levels, cardiorespiratory fitness and food intake. Methods: Sixteen SA and sixteen WE men matched by age (30 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 years) and BMI (25.7 ± 5.2 vs. 25.2 ± 3.3) completed a cross-sectional observational study involving body composition assessment by air displacement plethysmography, analysis of metabolic markers, inflammatory factors, appetite hormones and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). PA levels and food intake were assessed using triaxial accelerometry, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk PA questionnaire, and three-day food diary. Results: SA had a higher body fat percentage (BF%) (26.4 ± 9.0 vs. 19.5 ± 7.0 %), C-reactive protein, insulin area under the curve, triglyceride and leptin (P < 0.05), whereas acylated ghrelin (AG), insulin sensitivity index, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and VO2max were significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with WE. No group differences were noted for other biomarkers, self-reported PA or food intake. SA were more sedentary (P = 0.030) while WE spent more time in light physical activities using accelerometry (P = 0.023). Several markers were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with VO2max, notably AG (r=0.472) and BF% (r=-0.718) and sedentary PA levels with leptin (r=0.430) and TAG (r=0.428). Conclusion: SA demonstrated increased cardiometabolic risk compared with WE. Furthermore, low cardiorespiratory fitness and low PA levels were associated with several cardiometabolic risk markers.

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