Formulation and corneal permeation of ketorolac tromethamine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles

Fathalla, Zeinab A., Khaled, Khaled A., Hussein, Amal K., Alany, Raid G. and Vangala, Anil (2016) Formulation and corneal permeation of ketorolac tromethamine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 42(4), pp. 514-524. ISSN (print) 0363-9045


The aim of this work was to formulate chitosan (CS)-based nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with ketorolac tromethamine (KT) intended for topical ocular delivery. NPs were prepared using ionic gelation method incorporating tri-polyphosphate (TPP) as cross-linker. Following the preparation, the composition of the system was optimized in terms of their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE) and morphology, as well as performing structural characterization studies using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The data suggested that the size of the NPs was affected by CS/TPP ratio where the diameter of the NPs ranged from 108.0 ± 2.4 nm to 257.2 ± 18.6 nm. A correlation between drug EE and the corresponding drug concentration added to the formulation was observed, where the EE of the NPs increased with increasing drug concentration, for up to 10 mg/mL. FT-IR and DSC revealed that KT was dispersed within the NPs where the phosphate groups of TPP were associated with the ammonium groups of CS. The in vitro release profile of KT from CS NPs showed significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to KT solution. Furthermore, mucoadhesion studies revealed adhesive properties of the formulated NPs. The KT-loaded NPs were found to be stable when stored at different storage conditions for a period of 3 months. The ex vivo corneal permeation studies performed on excised porcine eye balls confirmed the ability of NPs in retaining the drug on the eye surface for a relatively longer time. These results demonstrate the potential of CS-based NPs for the ocular delivery of KT.

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