Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP17 and 17[beta]-HSD3: their role in the treatment of hormone-dependent prostate and breast cancer

Abdullah, Ammara (2012) Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP17 and 17[beta]-HSD3: their role in the treatment of hormone-dependent prostate and breast cancer. (PhD thesis), Kingston University,


Androgens play an important part in the initiation and progression of hormone-dependent prostate and breast cancer. These types of cancers can be treated by androgen ablation therapy. However, androgen ablation is associated with short (2-3 years) remission of the disease. Therefore therapies that inhibit the systemic biosynthesis of androgens, by targeting the P450 enzymes (CYP17 and 17-[beta]HSD type 3) which catalyse androgen biosynthesis, may represent a rational approach in the treatment of androgen-dependent cancer. Inhibitors of the enzyme CYP17: ketoconazole and liarozole, have been shown to decrease tumour cell adhesion to the endothelium and expression of adhesion molecules. The adhesion of cancer cells to the endothelium is an important preliminary event that underlies cancer matastasis. Within the this study, the development of assays for the enzymes; CYP17 and 17[beta]-HSD3 and the evaluation of a series of compounds which were designed to inhibit these enzymes have been considered. The preliminary screening of the compounds showed good inhibition of 17[alpha]=OHase and 17, 20 lyase components of the CYP17 enzyme in comparison to the reference drug, ketoconazole (KTZ). The IC[sub]50 of compounds 31, 34, 38, 41, 48 and 51 and KTZ was calculated as 14.40 [Mu]M, 5.82 [Mu]M, 0.18 [Mu]M, 1.35[Mu]M, 1.21[Mu]M, 0.50[Mu]M and 5.65[Mu]M respectively. However, only a few of the compounds designed to inhibit 17[beta]-HSD3 showed ap potent inhibitory activity. Compound 132 showed the highest percentage inhibition (40.51 [plus or minus] 0.14%) of 17[beta]- HSD3 activity when compared to the reference drugs, 7-hydroxy flavone (12.90 [plus or minus] 0.31%) and biacalein (13.66 [plus or minus] 0.31%). CYP17 inhibitors did not have any cytoxic effect on human cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines. The adhesion of DU145, PC3 and MCF7 to a non-stimulated HUVEC monolayers was decreased from 100 [plus or minus] 0.01% cell adhesion to 60.93 [plus or minus] 3.95%, 65.79 [plus or minus] 9.39% and 65.12 [plus or minus] 4.04% by compounds 38. 48 and 51 respectively in the absence of tumour necrosis factor alpha (THF-[alpha]). Similarly, compounds 38, 48 and 51 showed the highest anti-adhesion effect of DU145 on stimulated HUVEC monolayers (69.85 [plus or minus] 2.51%) cells respectively. Flow cytometry and immunostaining of intracellular adhesion molecules showed that CYP17 inhibitors did not have any effect on the expression of ICAM-1. In conclusion, the synthesised compounds were found to be good indicators of the CYP17 enzyme with no cytoxic and better anti-adhesion effects when compared to KTZ. Thus, these compounds can be further investigated as a therapeutic strategy against hormone-dependent prostate and breast cancer.

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