Preventing the development of observationally learnt fears in children by devaluing the model's negative response

Reynolds, Gemma, Field, Andy P and Askew, Chris (2015) Preventing the development of observationally learnt fears in children by devaluing the model's negative response. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(7), pp. 1355-1367. ISSN (print) 0091-0627

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Abstract

Vicarious learning has become an established indirect pathway to fear acquisition. It is generally accepted that associative learning processes underlie vicarious learning; however, whether this association is a form of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) learning or stimulus-response (CS-CR) learning remains unclear. Traditionally, these types of learning can be dissociated in a US revaluation procedure. The current study explored the effects of post-vicarious learning US revaluation on acquired fear responses. Ninety-four children (46 males and 48 females) aged 6 to 10 years first viewed either a fear vicarious learning video or a neutral vicarious learning video followed by random allocation to one of three US revaluation conditions: inflation; deflation; or control. Inflation group children were presented with still images of the adults in the video and told that the accompanying sound and image of a very fast heart rate monitor belonged to the adult. The deflation group were shown the same images but with the sound and image of a normal heart rate. The control group received no US revaluation. Results indicated that inflating how scared the models appeared to be did not result in significant increases in children's fear beliefs, avoidance preferences, avoidance behavior or heart rate for animals above increases caused by vicarious learning. In contrast, US devaluation resulted in significant decreases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences. Thus, the findings provide evidence that CS-US associations underpin vicarious learning and suggest that US devaluation may be a successful method for preventing children from developing fear beliefs following a traumatic vicarious learning episode with a stimulus.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This work was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council [grant number ES/J00751X/1].
Uncontrolled Keywords: childhood fear, anxiety, vicarious learning, modeling
Research Area: Psychology
Faculty, School or Research Centre: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (until 2017) > School of Psychology, Criminology and Sociology (from November 2012)
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Depositing User: Automatic Import Agent
Date Deposited: 09 Apr 2015 12:27
Last Modified: 28 Sep 2015 13:03
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-0004-0
URI: http://eprints.kingston.ac.uk/id/eprint/31300

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